In this section, we describe the chemical composition of olive oil, and some of its characteristics. We discuss the different fatty acids found in olive oil. This will help you understand the effect of olive oil on a healthy diet. You will also find explanations of such terms as olive oil acidity, peroxides, or polyphenol antioxidants. Although the subject is pretty dry, it is critical for olive oil producers and consumers to understand what these terms mean as they are invaluable tools to making and buying a high quality product.